Monday, September 30, 2013

Read The Companies Act, 2013

The government of India has notified 98 sections of the new Companies Act, 2013, where rules were not required, it has failed to notify various sub-sections linked to the 98 sections, leading to utter confusion. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) tried to address the issue by bringing in two separate clarifications, on September 12 and 18. It was belatedly clarified that the provisions of the old Act corresponding to the notified provisions of the new Act have "ceased to be effective" (in advance of the formal repeal of such provisions), but the problem largely pertains to the overlapping areas between the two legislations.


  1. kashif ali originally shared:

    Dear All
    As you all know 98 sections of the Companies Act 2013 has been implemented w.e.f. 12th Sep 2013, therefore all ROC are asking changes in AOA. I am sharing a draft form of AOA. Kindly note that there is no change in MOA you can still use the old MOA.

    You can download the revised AOA from my website

    Thanks & Regards
    Kashif Ali & Associates
    Company Secretaries
    268, Business India Complex,
    Uday Park, New Delhi-110049
    Call us : +91 9718483209

  2. Today is the Last Date for Submitting Suggestions for Ph I Draft Rules under the Companies Act 2013

  3. Confederation of Indian IndustryOctober 11, 2013 at 12:26 PM

    Dear Sir / Madam,

    Seminar on
    Companies Act, 2013 –Changes & Challenges
    1430 - 1830 hrs : 18 October 2013, Hotel Taj Deccan, Hyderabad

    After the passage of the new company law, the focus shifted to the subordinate legislation that would be developed for implementation of the Companies Act, 2013 as over 70% of the provisions would be implemented through the Rules. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs has designed a set of draft Rules which has been put up for public debate.

    To discuss the various aspects of the new Act and the rules, CII Andhra Pradesh is organizing a Seminar on the Companies Act, 2013 – Changes and Challenges from 1430 -1830 hrs on 18 October 2013 at Hotel Taj Deccan, Hyderabad.

    The session is being organised at a time when corporate India stands at the brink of a new law that would bring in significantly impact in the way companies are governed, raise money and interact with stakeholders - with stress on responsible conduct and disclosures with minimal Government intervention.

    Ernst & Young will be our Knowledge Partner for this session.

    I am writing to request and invite you to join in these very important deliberations. Your participation at the Session would be extremely useful in ensuring that the Ministry takes serious cognizance of the views of Industry on the implementation aspects of the new Act.

    Request you to kindly confirm through the attached Reply Form. In order to defray the administrative charges, a nominal delegate fee is charged, which is mentioned in the Reply Form.

    We look forward to your kind confirmation.


    From the desk of :

    S Kannan
    Director & Head
    CII Andhra Pradesh

    Confederation of Indian Industry
    # 1-11-252/9, Plot No.7, 'Regal House'
    Motilal Nehru Nagar, Begumpet
    Hyderabad- 500 016
    Tel: 040 - 2776 5964 / 66 / 67
    Fax: 040 - 2776 6116
    Email :

  4. An Analysis of One Person Company under Companies Act 2013 – by Karandeep Makkar

    1. Introduction

    Individual entrepreneurs doing business as sole proprietors will now be able to avail the benefits of limited liability without a second person to form a company as the Companies Act, 2013 (hereinafter “2013 Act”) proposes the concept of “One Person Company” (hereinafter “OPC”). Under the Companies Act, 1956 (hereinafter “1956 Act”) a private limited company is required to have a minimum of two shareholders and two directors. This write-up examines provisions of the 2013 Act and the Draft Rules to Companies Act, 2013 (hereinafter “Rules”) relating to OPC.

    2. Background

    The idea of OPC was mooted by the J J Irani Committee which was set up to take a comprehensive view on the changes necessary in the Companies Act, 1956 in context of the changing economic and business environment. In its report the committee had observed,

    “With increasing use of information technology and computers, emergence of the service sector, it is time that the entrepreneurial capabilities of the people are given an outlet for participation in economic activity. Such economic activity may take place through the creation of an economic person in the form of a company. Yet it would not be reasonable to expect that every entrepreneur who is capable of developing his ideas and participating in the market place should do it through an association of persons. We feel that it is possible for individuals to operate in the economic domain and contribute effectively. To facilitate this, the Committee recommends that the law should recognize the formation of a single person economic entity in the form of ‘One Person Company’. Such an entity may be provided with a simpler regime through exemptions so that the single entrepreneur is not compelled to fritter away his time, energy and resources on procedural matters.”

    It was proposed that the concept of ‘One Person Company’ may be introduced in the Act with following characteristics:-

    OPC may be registered as a private company with one member and at least one director;
    Adequate safeguards in case of death/disability of the sole person should be provided through appointment of another individual as nominee director. On the demise of the original director, the nominee director will manage the affairs of the company till the date of transmission of shares to legal heirs of the demised member.
    Letters ‘OPC’ to be suffixed with the name of OPCs to distinguish it from other companies.

    The much-awaited Companies Bill, 2013 got the President’s assent on 29 August 2013. The 2013 Act seeks to consolidate and amend the law relating to the companies and intends to improve corporate governance, raise levels of transparency and to further strengthen regulations for corporates. The 2013 Act has made significant changes to the provisions of law and has introduced several new concepts. OPC has been defined in section 2(62) of the 2013 Act as a company which has only one person as a member.

    1. 3. Incorporation

      In terms of section 3(1)(c) of the 2013 Act, an OPC may be formed for any lawful purpose by one person. Salient features in relation to incorporation include:

      3.1 The memorandum of an OPC shall indicate the name of another person, with his prior written consent, who shall, in the event of the subscriber’s death or his incapacity to contract become the member of the company.
      3.2 The written consent of such person shall also be filed with the registrar of companies at the time of incorporation of the OPC along with its memorandum and articles.
      3.3 The words ‘‘One Person Company’’ must be mentioned in brackets below the name of such company, wherever its name is printed, affixed or engraved. [Second proviso to Section 12(3)]
      3.4 A person can incorporate a maximum of 5 OPCs. [Rule 2.1(2)]
      3.5 Only natural persons can incorporate an OPC. Also, the person incorporating an OPC must be an Indian citizen who has stayed in India for at least 182 days during the immediately preceding one financial year. [Rule 2.1(1)]

      4. Compliance burden

      The definition of “private company” under section 2(68) of the 2013 Act includes OPC. Thus, an OPC will be required to comply with provisions applicable to private companies. However, OPCs have been provided with a number of exemptions and therefore have lesser compliance related burden. Such exemptions include:

      4.1 OPC is not required to prepare cash flow statement as a part of financial statement. [Section 2(40)]
      4.2 In case an OPC does not have a company secretary, the annual return can be signed by the director of the company. [Proviso to section 92(1)]
      4.3 An OPC is not required to hold an annual general meeting. [Section 96(1)]
      4.4 The provisions of the following sections shall not apply to an OPC -

      (a) Section 98: Power of Tribunal to call meetings of members, etc.
      (b) Section 100: Calling of extraordinary general meeting
      (c) Section 101: Notice of meeting
      (d) Section 102: Statement to be annexed to notice
      (e) Section 103: Quorum for meetings
      (f) Section 104: Chairman of meetings
      (g) Section 105: Proxies
      (h) Section 106: Restriction on voting rights
      (i) Section 107: Voting by show of hands
      (j) Section 108: Voting through electronic means
      (k) Section 109: Demand for poll
      (l) Section 110: Postal ballot
      (m) Section 111: Circulation of members’ resolution

      4.5 The minimum number of directors in the case of an OPC has been limited to one. [Section 149(1)(a)]
      4.6 An OPC must conduct at least 1 meeting of the board of directors in each half of a calendar year with a gap of at least 90 days between the 2 meetings. For an OPC having only 1 director, the provisions of section 173 (Meetings of board) and section 174 (Quorum for meetings of board) will not apply. [Section 173(5)]

      Section 193 of the 2013 Act provides that when an OPC enters into a contract with the sole member of the company who is also the director of the company, the company shall, unless the contract is in writing, ensure that the terms of the contract or offer are contained in a memorandum or are recorded in the minutes of the first meeting of the board of directors of the company held next after entering into contract. This requirement, however, will not apply to contracts entered into by the company in the ordinary course of its business. Also, an OPC is required to inform the registrar of companies about every such contract within a period of 15 days of the date of approval by the board of directors.

  5. 5. Nomination by the subscriber or member of OPC

    In terms of section 4(1)(f), the memorandum of an OPC should state the name of the person who shall become the member of the company in the event of death of the subscriber. Such nominee may withdraw his consent subsequently. [Section 3(1)]

    5.1 The subscriber to the memorandum of an OPC shall nominate a person, after obtaining his/her prior written consent, who shall, in the event of the subscriber’s death or his incapacity to contract, become the member of that OPC. [Rule 2.2(1)]
    5.2 The member of OPC may at any time change the name of such nominee by giving notice as prescribed. [Section 3(1)]
    5.3 The notice by the member of OPC as stated above must be provided by the OPC to the registrar of companies once the same is intimated by the member to the OPC. Any change in the name of nominee shall not be deemed to be an alteration of the memorandum. [Section 3(1)]
    5.4 Only a natural person who has stayed in India for a period of not less than 182 days during the immediately preceding one financial year is entitled to be a nominee for the sole member of an OPC. [Rule 2.1(1)]

    6. Conversion of OPC into private or public company

    OPC can get itself converted into a private or public company after increasing the minimum number of members and directors to two or minimum of seven members and three directors as the case may be, and by maintaining the minimum paid-up capital as per requirements of the 2013 Act for such class of company and by making due compliance of section 18 of the 2013 Act for conversion. [Rule 2.4(6)]

    The Rules prescribe certain circumstances when an OPC will be mandatorily required to convert into a private or public company. In terms of Rule 2.4, where the paid up share capital of an OPC exceeds 50 lakh rupees or its average annual turnover during the period of immediately preceding three consecutive financial years exceeds 2 crore rupees, it will not be entitled to continue as an OPC. Such OPC shall be required to convert itself into either a private company or a public company in accordance with the provisions of section 18 of the 2013 Act:(i) within 6 months of the date on which its paid up share capital is increased beyond 50 lakh rupees; or (ii) the last day of the period immediately preceding three consecutive financial years during which its average annual turnover exceeded 2 crore rupees; or (iii) the close of the financial year during which its balance sheet total exceeded 1 crore rupees, as the case may be,. The OPC is required to alter its memorandum and articles by passing an ordinary or special resolution in accordance with sub-section 5 (3) of section 122 of the 2013 Act to give effect to the conversion and to make necessary changes incidental thereto.

  6. 7. Benefits

    An OPC gives the advantage of limited liability to entrepreneurs whereby the liability of the member will be limited to the unpaid subscription money. This benefit is not available in case of a sole proprietorship.
    Explaining some of the advantages of OPC, Corporate Affairs Minister Sachin Pilot stated in a recent press conference,

    “Small entrepreneurs can now set up ‘one person companies’ to directly access target markets rather than being forced to share their profits with middlemen… This would provide tremendous opportunities for millions of people, including those working in areas like handloom, handicrafts and pottery. They are working as artisans and weavers on their own, so they don’t have the legal entity as a company. But the OPC would help them do business as an enterprise and give them an opportunity to start their own ventures with a formal business structure.” 1

    An OPC being an incorporated entity will also have the feature of perpetual succession and will make it easier for entrepreneurs to raise capital for business. Also, since it will have lesser compliance burden compared to private companies, it can be preferred mode of business for small industries.

    8. Conclusion

    While the idea of an OPC looks promising, doing business in OPC structure may effectively result in higher tax implications on the businesses as the rate of taxation on companies is higher. Also, since a company is a separate legal entity, the distribution of dividend by an OPC may attract dividend distribution tax. Sole proprietors, on the other hand are taxed at the rates applicable to individuals, i.e., differential rates for different slabs of income. It remains to be seen if the OPC model is widely adopted.

  7. Directors & Board Provisions-

    • Maximum 15 directors in a Company
    ● If more than 15, special resolution required
    • Prescribed class of companies to have 1 women director
    • Listed companies may have one director elected by such small shareholders
    • Maximum number of directorships is 20, within which maximum 10 public limited companies. It includes alternate directorships.
    ● Atleast 1 director shall be a person stayed in India for a total period of not less than 182 days in the previous calendar year.

  8. Dear Members,
    We have observed in many folds that we PCS need to approach to a PCA for getting share valuation certificate for FC-GPR, when shares are issued at premium, Networth Certificate to banks, Fixed Assets Certificate required for MSME and Pollution Control Boards, etc.

    According to me, CS profession is well aware about about the valuation techniques, however the same is not recognised by banks and government departments. Therefore each and every time we need to approach to PCA for getting such certificate.

    Now even though Companies Act, 2013 has recognised PCS with five years standing experience, as Valuation Professional, the appointment of valuer does rest with the Audit Committee, which will indeed prefer their colleagues rather than other professionals.

    We are already certifying the Networth of the company in Form 23AC. Lets urge to the ICSI to submit a representation to Ministry of MSME, Indian Bank Association and allied authorities to accept valuation certificate from PCS.

    Madhur Agrawal


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